Procedural Security Analysis of Electronic Voting
Security is among the most important constraints in the implementation of electronic voting because, to date, commercially available technology does not provide a completely secure e-transaction environment. In this paper, we explore the issue of security of e-voting procedures, given the established limitations of technology. We examine security in the context of the increased complexity of multiple-channel voting, provided by a multiplicity of agents involved in the administration of e-elections. As previously suggested, security in e-voting has two aspects, the technical and the procedural one. In the course of interviews and observations conducted during the 2003 UK local government legally binding e-voting pilots we have identified several procedural security gaps and related procedural security measures. After defining the norms of procedural security in e-voting, we adopt an existing framework of e-voting security objectives and use it as an analytical tool to indicate the importance of the procedural aspect of security. In concluding we extend the use of procedural security measures to the need for transparency in electronic voting and the development of trust and public confidence towards the newly introduced voting practices.